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Mr. Burgher's Art Facts

Hammurabi's Code of Law

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1. If anyone corners another, putting a ban upon him without proof, then he that has cornered the other shall be put to death.

2. If anyone brings an accusation against a man and the accused goes to the river and leaps into the river. If the accused sinks in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the river proves that the accused is not guilty, and he escapes unhurt, then he who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser.

3. If anyone bring an accusation of any crime before the elders and does not prove what he has charged. This person will be put to death if it is a capital offense case.

4. If it satisfies the elders to impose a fine of grain or money, he shall receive the fine that the action produces.

5. If a judge tries a case, reaches a decision, and presents his judgment in writing; if later an error is discovered in his decision, and it be through his own fault, then the judge shall pay twelve times the fine set by him in the case and he shall be publicly removed from the judge's bench, and never again shall he sit there to render judgment.

6. If anyone steals the property of a temple or the court, he shall be put to death. The one who receives the stolen thing from him shall also be put to death.

7. If anyone buys from the son or the slave of another man without a witness or a contract, than he is considered a thief and shall be put to death.

8. If anyone steals cattle, sheep, an ass, pig or a goat that belong to a god or to the court, the thief shall pay thirty fold for the animal; if they belonged to a free man of the king he shall pay ten fold; if the thief has nothing with which to pay he shall be put to death.

9. If anyone lose an article and finds it in the possession of another: if the person in whose possession the thing is found say "A merchant sold it to me, I paid for it before witnesses," and if the owner of the thing say, "I will bring witnesses who know my property," then shall the purchaser bring the merchant who sold it to him, and the witnesses before whom he bought it, and the owner shall bring witnesses who can identify his property. The judge shall examine their testimony--both of the witnesses before whom the price was paid, and of the witnesses who identify the lost article on oath. The merchant is then proved to be a thief and shall be put to death. The owner of the lost article receives his property, and he who bought it receives the money he paid from the estate of the merchant.

10. If the purchaser does not bring the merchant and the witnesses before whom he bought the article, but its owner bring witnesses who identify it, then the buyer is the thief and shall be put to death, and the owner receives the lost article.

11. If the owner does not bring witnesses to identify the lost article, he is an evildoer and shall be put to death.

12. If the witnesses are not at hand, then the judge shall set a limit, at the expiration of six months. If his witnesses have not appeared within the six months, he is an evildoer, and shall bear the fine of the pending case.

* There is no 13th law, 13 being considered and unlucky and evil number.

14. If anyone steals the minor son of another, he shall be put to death.

15. If anyone takes a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a free man, outside the city gates, he shall be put to death.

16. If anyone receives a male or female slave of the court, or of a free man into his house and does not bring it out at the public proclamation of the major domus, the master of the house shall be put to death.

17. If anyone finds a runaway male or female slaves in the open country and brings them to their masters, the master of the slaves shall pay him two shekels of silver.

18. If the slave will not give the name of the master, the finder shall bring the slave to the palace; a further investigation must follow, and the slave shall be returned to his master.

19. If he holds the slaves in his house, and they are caught there, he shall be put to death.

20. If the slave that he caught ran away from him, then he tells the owners of the slave, and he is free of all blame.

21. If anyone breaks a hole into a house to steal, he shall be put to death and be buried.

22. If anyone is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death.

23. If the robber is not caught, then he who was robbed must claim under oath the amount of his loss; then the community will collectively compensate him for the goods stolen.

24. If persons are stolen, then the community will pay one mina of silver to their relatives.

25. If fire breaks out in a house, and someone who comes to put it out steals property from house, he shall be thrown into that same fire.

26. If a chief or soldier who has been ordered to go to war does not go, but hires a mercenary, if he withholds the compensation, then this officer will be put to death, and he who represented him shall take possession of his house.

27. If a chief or man is caught in a war, and if his fields and garden are given to another, if he returns, his field and garden shall be returned to him, he shall take it over again.

28. If a chief or a man is captured in war, if his son is able to enter into possession, then the field and garden shall be given to him; he shall take over the fee of his father.

29. If his son is still young, and cannot take possession, a third of the field and garden shall be given to his mother.

30. If a chief or man leave his house, garden, and field and hires it out, and some one else takes possession of his house, garden, and field and uses it for three years: if the first owner returns and claims his house, garden, and field, it shall not be given to him, but he who has taken possession of it and used it shall continue to use it.

31. If he hires it out for one year and then returns, the house, garden, and field shall be given back to him, and he shall take it over again.

32. If a chief or a man is captured in war and made a slave, and a merchant buys him free, and bring him back to his place; if he has the means in his house to buy his freedom, he shall buy himself free: if he has nothing in his house with which to buy himself free, he shall be bought free by the temple of his community; if there is nothing in the temple to buy him free, the court shall buy his freedom. His field, garden, and house shall not be given for the purchase of his freedom.

33. If a chief or a man enters himself as withdrawn from the military and send a mercenary as substitute, but withdraw him, then the chief or man shall be put to death.

34. If a chief or man harms the property of a captain, injure the captain, or take away a gift presented to the captain by the king, then the chief or man shall be put to death.

35. If anyone buys the cattle or sheep the king has given to a chief, the king loses his money.

36. The field, garden, and house of a chief, man, or subject that is for rent cannot be sold by the renter.

37. If anyone buys the field, garden, and house of a chief, man, or subject being rented, the sale is invalid and he loses his money. The field, garden, and house return to their owners.

38. A chief, man, or subject renting cannot assign his field, house, and garden work to his wife or daughter, nor can he sell it for a debt.

39. He may, however, assign a field, garden, or house, which he owns to his wife or daughter, or can sell it for a debt.

40. He may sell a field, garden, and house to a merchant or to any other public official.

41. If anyone fenced in the field, garden, and house they are renting and furnished the fence; if the chief, man, or subject reoccupies their field, garden, and house, the fence that was built becomes his property.

42. If anyone takes over a field to till it and obtains no crops from it, the farmer must prove that he did no work on the field, and he must deliver grain to the owner of the field.

43. If he did not till the field, but let it lie fallow, he shall give grain like his neighbor's to the owner of the field, and the field that he let lay fallow he must plow and sow and return to its owner.

44. If anyone takes over a field no one is using to make it fit for farming, but is lazy, and does not make it fit, he shall plow the fallow field in the fourth year and give it back to its owner. For each acre of land, 239 gallons of grain shall be given.

45. If a man rents his field for tillage, and receives the rent of his field, but bad weather come and destroyed the harvest, the injury falls upon the tiller of the soil.

46. If he does not receive rent for his field, but lets it on half or third shares of the harvest, the grain on the field shall be divided proportionately between the tiller and the owner.

47. If the tiller, because he did not succeed in the first year, has had the soil tilled by others, the owner may raise no objection; the field has been cultivated and he receives the harvest according to agreement.

48. If anyone owes a debt for a loan, and a storm flattens the grain, the harvest fail, or the grain does not grow from lack of water; in that year he does not give his creditor any grain, he washes his debt-tablet in water and pays no rent for this year.

49. If anyone rents a merchant a field and requires the merchant to plant and harvest the fields the crop. If the cultivator plants corn in the field, at the harvest the corn shall belong to the owner of the field. The merchant will pay the cultivator.

50. If an owner gives a cultivated field, the corn in the field shall belong to the owner of the field, and he shall return the money to the merchant as rent.

51. If he has no money to repay, then he shall pay in corn or sesame in place of the money as rent for what he received from the merchant, according to the royal tariff.

52. If the cultivator does not plant corn or sesame in the field, the debtor's contract is not weakened.

53. If anyone is too lazy to keep his dam in proper condition and the dam breaks and all the fields are flooded, then he who did not maintain his dam must sell the dam and the money will be used replace the corn which he has caused to be ruined.

54. If he is unable to replace the corn, then he and his possessions shall be divided among the farmers whose corn he has flooded.

55. If anyone opens his ditches to water his crop, but is careless, and the water floods the field of his neighbor, then he shall pay his neighbor corn for his loss.

56. If a man lets in the water and the water overflow the plantation of his neighbor. He will pay 239 gallons of corn for every acre of land flooded.

57. If a shepherd, without the permission of the owner of the field and without the knowledge of the owner of the sheep, lets the sheep into a field to graze. The owner of the field will harvest his crop and the shepherd must pay to the owner 478 gallons of corn for every acre of land.

58. If after the flocks has left the pasture and shut up in the common fold at the city gate to graze, this shepherd shall take possession of the field which he has allowed to be grazed on, and at the harvest he must pay 1,634 gallons of corn for every acre of land.

59. If anyone, without the knowledge of the owner of a garden, cuts a tree down in a garden he shall pay half a mina in money.

60. If anyone gives over a field to a gardener for four years, in the fifth year the owner and the gardener shall divide it, and the owner can take his part in charge.

61. If the gardener has not completed the planting of the field, leaving one part unused, this part shall be assigned to him as his.

62. If the gardener did not plant the field that was given over to him as a garden, the gardener will pay the owner the produce of the field for the years that he let it lie fallow, according to the product of neighboring fields, put the field in arable condition and return it to its owner.

63. If the gardener transform wasteland into productive fields and return it to its owner, the owner will pay him 239 gallons of grain per acre.

64. If anyone hands over his garden to a gardener to work, the gardener will pay the owner two-thirds of the produce of the garden, for so long as he has it in possession, and the other third he can keep.

65. If the gardener does not work in the garden and productivity falls off, the gardener will pay in proportion to other neighboring gardens. (Some of the text is missing.)

100. Interest for the money is as much as one has received. A note is issued, and on the day when they settle the dept, it will be paid to the merchant.

101. If there is no mercantile arrangement the entire amount of money, which was received will be given to the merchant.

102. If a merchant entrusts money to a broker for an investment, and the broker suffer a loss in the place to which he goes, he will make the capital good for the merchant.

103. If an enemy takes away anything that a broker had, the broker shall swear by God and be free of obligation.

104. If a merchant gives a broker goods to transport, the broker shall give a receipt for the amount, and compensate the merchant. Then he shall obtain a receipt form the merchant for the money that he gives the merchant.

105. If the broker is careless, and does not take a receipt for the money, which he gave the merchant, he cannot consider the money his own.

106. If the broker accept money from the merchant, but they have a quarrel and a receipt is denied, then the merchant must swear before God and witnesses that he has given this money to the broker, and the broker will pay him three times the sum.

107. If the merchant cheats the agent, and the merchant denies the receipt of what had been returned to the broker, then the broker calls the merchant before God and the judges, and if he still denies receiving what the broker had given him, the merchant must pay six times the sum to the agent.

108. If a female bar manager does not accept corn according to gross weight in payment for drink, but takes money, and the price of the drink is less than that of the corn, she shall be convicted and thrown into the water.

109. If conspirators meet in the house of a bar owner, and these conspirators are not captured and delivered to the court, the tavern-keeper shall be put to death.

110. If a woman opens a tavern, or enter a tavern to drink, then this woman will be burned to death.

111. If an innkeeper furnishes sixty ka of usakani (alcohol) she shall receive fifty ka of corn at the harvest.

112. If anyone be on a journey and entrust silver, gold, precious stones, or any movable property to another, and wish to recover it from him; if the latter do not bring all of the property to the appointed place, but appropriate it to his own use, then shall this man, who did not bring the property to hand it over, be convicted, and he shall pay fivefold for all that had been entrusted to him.

113. If anyone have consignment of corn or money, and he takes from the granary without the knowledge of the owner, then he who took corn without the knowledge of the owner will be legally convicted, and repay the corn he has taken. And he shall lose whatever commission was paid to him, or due him.

114. If a man has no claim on another for corn and money, and tries to demand it by force, he shall pay one-third of a mina of silver in every case.

115. If anyone has a claim for corn or money upon another and imprisons him, if the prisoner dies in prison a natural death, the case shall go no further.

116. If the prisoner dies in prison from maltreatment, the master of the prisoner shall convict the merchant before the judge. If he was a free-born man, the son of the merchant shall be put to death; if it was a slave, he shall pay one-third of a mina of gold, and all that the master of the prisoner gave he shall forfeit.

117. If anyone fails to meet a claim for debt, and sell himself, his wife, his son, and daughter for money or give them away to forced labor: they shall work for three years in the house of the man who bought them, or the proprietor, and in the fourth year they shall be set free.

118. If he give a male or female slave away for forced labor, and the merchant sublease them, or sell them for money, no objection can be raised.

119. If anyone fails to meet a claim for debt, and he sells a maid-servant who has had his children, for money, the money which the merchant has paid shall be repaid to him by the owner of the slave and she shall be freed.

120. If anyone stores corn for safe keeping in another person's house, and any harm happen to the corn in storage, or if the owner of the house open the granary and take some of the corn, or if he denies that the corn was stored in his house: then the owner of the corn shall claim his corn before God, and the owner of the house shall pay its owner for all of the corn that he took.

121. If anyone stores corn in another man's house he shall pay him storage at the rate of one gur for every five ka of corn per year.

122. If anyone gives another silver, gold, or anything else to keep, he shall show everything to some witness, drawing up a contract, and then hand it over for safekeeping.

123. If he turns it over for safe keeping without witness or contract, and if he to whom it was given denies it, then he has no legitimate claim.

124. If anyone delivers silver, gold, or anything else to another for safe keeping, before a witness, but he deny it, he shall be brought before a judge, and all that he has denied he shall pay in full.

125. If anyone places his property with another for safe keeping, and there, either through thieves or robbers, his property and the property of the other man is lost, the owner of the house, through whose neglect the loss took place, shall compensate the owner for all that was given to him in charge. But the owner of the house shall try to follow up and recover his property, and take it away from the thief.

126. If anyone who has not lost his goods states that they have been lost, and makes false claims: if he claim his goods and amount of injury before God, even though he has not lost them, he shall be fully compensated for all his loss claimed.

127. If anyone slanders a sister of a god or the wife of anyone, and can not prove it, this man shall be taken before the judges and his brow shall be marked.

128. If a man takes a woman as his wife, but has no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him.

129. If a man's wife has sex with another man, both shall be tied and thrown into the water, but the husband may pardon his wife and the king his slaves.

130. If a man has sex with a married prostitute who still lives in her father's house, this man shall be put to death, but the wife is blameless.

131. If a man brings a charge against one's wife, but she is not sleeping with another man, she must take an oath and then may return to her house.

132. If a man's wife is accused of sleeping with another man, but she is not caught sleeping with the other man, she shall jump into the river for her husband.

133. If a man is taken prisoner in war, and there is a food in his house, but his wife leaves house and goes to another house: because this wife did not keep her house, and went to another house, she shall be judicially condemned and thrown into the water.

134. If anyone is captured in war and there is not food in his house, if then his wife can go to another house and this woman shall be held blameless.

135. If a man is taken prisoner of war and there is no food in his house and his wife goes to another house and has children; and if later her husband returns home: then the wife will return to her husband, but the children are in the custody of the father.

136. If any husband leaves his house to run away, and his wife go to another house. If he returns and wishes to take his wife back the wife will not return to her husband.

137. If a man wishes to separate from a woman who is the mother of his children then he will give that wife her dowry, and a part of the usufruct of field, garden, and property, so that she can raise her children. When she has brought up her children, a portion of all that is given to the children shall be given to her. She may then marry the man of her choice.

138. If a man wishes to separate from his wife who has not had his children, he shall give her the amount of her purchase money and the dowry which she brought from her father's house, and let her go.

139. If there was no purchase price for the marriage, he shall give her one mina of gold as a gift of release.

140. If he is a freed man he shall give her one-third of a mina of gold.

141. If a man's wife, who lives in his house, wishes to leave it, plunges into debt, tries to ruin her house, neglects her husband, and is judicially convicted: if her husband offers her release, she may go on her way, and he gives her nothing as a gift of release. If her husband does not wish to release her and he takes another wife, then she shall remain as servant in her husband's house.

142. If a woman quarrel with her husband, and say: "You are not congenial to me," the reasons for her prejudice must be presented. If there is no fault on her part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches to this woman, she shall take her dowry and go back to her father's house.

143. If she is not innocent, but leaves her husband, and ruins her house, neglecting her husband, this woman will be cast into the water.

144. If a man takes a wife and this woman gives her husband a maid-servant, and the maid has his children, but this man wishes to take another wife, this shall not be permitted to him; he shall not take a second wife.

145. If a man takes a wife and she does not have his children, and he intends to take another wife: if he takes this second wife, this second wife shall not be allowed equality with his wife.

146. If a man takes a wife and she give this man a maid-servant as wife and she has his children, and then this maid assumes equality with the wife: because she has mothered his children her master cannot sell her for money, but he may keep her as a slave, reckoning her among the maid-servants.

147. If she has not had his children, then her mistress may sell her for money.

148. If a man’s wife gets a disease. If he then desires to take a second wife he cannot put away his wife, who has been attacked by disease, but he can keep her in the house that he has built and support her so long as she lives.

149. If this woman does not wish to remain in her husband's house, then he will compensate her for the dowry that she brought with her from her father's house, and she may go.

150. If a man gave his wife a field, garden, and house and a deed therefore, if then after the death of her husband the sons raise no claim, then the mother may bequeath all to one of her sons whom she prefers, and need leave nothing to his brothers.

151. If a woman who lived in a man's house made an agreement with her husband, that no creditor can arrest her, and has given a document therefore: if that man, before he married that woman, had a debt, the creditor can not hold the woman for it. But if the woman, before she entered the man's house, had contracted a debt, her creditor cannot arrest her husband therefore.

152. If after the woman had entered the man's house, both contracted a debt, both must pay the merchant.

153. If the wife of one man on account of another man has their mates (her husband and the other man's wife) murdered, both of them shall be impaled.

154. If a man were guilty of incest with his daughter, he shall be driven from the place (exiled).

155. If a man betroth a girl to his son, and his son have intercourse with her, but he (the father) afterward defile her, and be surprised, then he shall be bound and cast into the water (drowned).

156. If a man betroth a girl to his son, but his son has not known her, and if then he defile her, he shall pay her half a gold mina, and compensate her for all that she brought out of her father's house. She may marry the man of her heart.

157. If any one were guilty of incest with his mother after his father, both shall be burned.

158. If any one were surprised after his father with his chief wife, who has borne children, he shall be driven out of his father's house.

159. If any one, who has brought chattels into his father-in-law's house, and has paid the purchase-money, looks for another wife, and says to his father-in-law: "I do not want your daughter," the girl's father may keep all that he had brought.

160. If a man bring chattels into the house of his father-in-law, and pay the "purchase price" (for his wife): if then the father of the girl say: "I will not give you my daughter," he shall give him back all that he brought with him.

161. If a man bring chattels into his father-in-law's house and pay the "purchase price," if then his friend slander him, and his father-in-law say to the young husband: "You shall not marry my daughter," the he shall give back to him undiminished all that he had brought with him; but his wife shall not be married to the friend.

162. If a man marry a woman, and she bear sons to him; if then this woman die, then shall her father have no claim on her dowry; this belongs to her sons.

163. If a man marry a woman and she bear him no sons; if then this woman die, if the "purchase price" which he had paid into the house of his father-in-law is repaid to him, her husband shall have no claim upon the dowry of this woman; it belongs to her father's house.

164. If his father-in-law does not pay back to him the amount of the "purchase price" he may subtract the amount of the "Purchase price" from the dowry, and then pay the remainder to her father's house.

165. If a man give to one of his sons whom he prefers a field, garden, and house, and a deed therefore: if later the father die, and the brothers divide the estate, then they shall first give him the present of his father, and he shall accept it; and the rest of the paternal property shall they divide.

166. If a man take wives for his son, but take no wife for his minor son, and if then he die: if the sons divide the estate, they shall set aside besides his portion the money for the "purchase price" for the minor brother who had taken no wife as yet, and secure a wife for him.

167. If a man marry a wife and she bear him children: if this wife die and he then take another wife and she bear him children: if then the father die, the sons must not partition the estate according to the mothers, they shall divide the dowries of their mothers only in this way; the paternal estate they shall divide equally with one another.

168. If a man wish to put his son out of his house, and declare before the judge: "I want to put my son out," then the judge shall examine into his reasons. If the son were guilty of no great fault, for which he can be rightfully put out, the father shall not put him out.

169. If he were guilty of a grave fault, which should rightfully deprive him of the filial relationship, the father shall forgive him the first time; but if he were guilty of a grave fault a second time the father may deprive his son of all filial relation.

170. If his wife bear sons to a man, or his maid-servant have borne sons, and the father while still living says to the children whom his maid-servant has borne: "My sons," and he count them with the sons of his wife; if then the father die, then the sons of the wife and of the maid-servant shall divide the paternal property in common. The son of the wife is to partition and choose.

171. If, however, the father while still living did not say to the sons of the maid-servant: "My sons," and then the father dies, then the sons of the maid-servant shall not share with the sons of the wife, but the freedom of the maid and her sons shall be granted. The sons of the wife shall have no right to enslave the sons of the maid; the wife shall take her dowry (from her father), and the gift that her husband gave her and deeded to her (separate from dowry, or the purchase-money paid her father), and live in the home of her husband: so long as she lives she shall use it, it shall not be sold for money. Whatever she leaves shall belong to her children.

172. If her husband made her no gift, she shall be compensated for her gift, and she shall receive a portion from the estate of her husband, equal to that of one child. If her sons oppress her, to force her out of the house, the judge shall examine into the matter, and if the sons are at fault the woman shall not leave her husband's house. If the woman desires to leave the house, she must leave to her sons the gift, which her husband gave her, but she may take the dowry of her father's house. Then she may marry the man of her heart.

173. If this woman bear sons to her second husband, in the place to which she went, and then die, her earlier and later sons shall divide the dowry between them.

174. If she bears no sons to her second husband, the sons of her first husband shall have the dowry.

175. If a State slave or the slave of a freed man marry the daughter of a free man, and children are born, the master of the slave shall have no right to enslave the children of the free.

176. If, however, a State slave or the slave of a freed man marry a man's daughter, and after he marries her she bring a dowry from a father's house, if then they both enjoy it and found a household, and accumulate means, if then the slave die, then she who was free born may take her dowry, and all that her husband and she had earned; she shall divide them into two parts, one-half the master for the slave shall take, and the other half shall the free-born woman take for her children. If the free-born woman had no gift she shall take all that her husband and she had earned and divide it into two parts; and the master of the slave shall take one-half and she shall take the other for her children.

177. If a widow, whose children are not grown, wishes to enter another house (remarry), she shall not enter it without the knowledge of the judge. If she enters another house the judge shall examine the state of the house of her first husband. Then the house of her first husband shall be entrusted to the second husband and the woman herself as managers. And a record must be made thereof. She shall keep the house in order, bring up the children, and not sell the household utensils. He who buys the utensils of the children of a widow shall lose his money, and the goods shall return to their owners.

178. If a "devoted woman" or a prostitute to whom her father has given a dowry and a deed therefore, but if in this deed it is not stated that she may bequeath it as she pleases, and has not explicitly stated that she has the right of disposal; if then her father die, then her brothers shall hold her field and garden, and give her corn, oil, and milk according to her portion, and satisfy her. If her brothers do not give her corn, oil, and milk according to her share, then her field and garden shall support her. She shall have the usufruct of field and garden and all that her father gave her so long as she lives, but she cannot sell or assign it to others. Her position of inheritance belongs to her brothers.

179. If a "sister of a god," or a prostitute, receive a gift from her father, and a deed in which it has been explicitly stated that she may dispose of it as she pleases, and give her complete disposition thereof: if then her father die, then she may leave her property to whomsoever she pleases. Her brothers can raise no claim thereto.

180. If a father give a present to his daughter--either marriageable or a prostitute (unmarriageable)--and then die, then she is to receive a portion as a child from the paternal estate, and enjoy its usufruct so long as she lives. Her estate belongs to her brothers.

181. If a father devote a temple-maid or temple-virgin to God and give her no present: if then the father die, she shall receive the third of a child's portion from the inheritance of her father's house, and enjoy its usufruct so long as she lives. Her estate belongs to her brothers.

182. If a father devote his daughter as a wife of Mardi of Babylon (as in 181), and give her no present, nor a deed; if then her father die, then shall she receive one-third of her portion as a child of her father's house from her brothers, but Marduk may leave her estate to whomsoever she wishes.

183. If a man gives his daughter by a concubine a dowry, and a husband, and a deed; if then her father dies, she shall receive no portion from the paternal estate.

184. If a man do not give a dowry to his daughter by a concubine, and no husband; if then her father die, her brother shall give her a dowry according to her father's wealth and secure a husband for her.

185. If a man adopt a child and to his name as son, and rear him, this grown son cannot be demanded back again.

186. If a man adopts a son, and if after he has taken him he injures his foster father and mother, then this adopted son shall return to his father's house.

187. The son of a paramour in the palace service, or of a prostitute, cannot be demanded back.

188. If an artisan has undertaken to rear a child and teaches him his craft, he cannot be demanded back.

189. If he has not taught him his craft, this adopted son may return to his father's house.

190. If a man does not maintain a child that he has adopted as a son and reared with his other children, then his adopted son may return to his father's house.

191. If a man, who had adopted a son and reared him, founded a household, and had children, wish to put this adopted son out, and then this son shall not simply go his way. His adoptive father shall give him of his wealth one-third of a child's portion, and then he may go. He shall not give him of the field, garden, and house.

192. If a son of a paramour or a prostitute says to his adoptive father or mother: "You are not my father, or my mother," his tongue shall be cut off.

193. If the son of a paramour or a prostitute desire his father's house, and desert his adoptive father and adoptive mother, and goes to his father's house, then shall his eye be put out.

194. If a man give his child to a nurse and the child die in her hands, but the nurse unbeknown to the father and mother nurse another child, then they shall convict her of having nursed another child without the knowledge of the father and mother and her breasts shall be cut off.

195. If a son strikes his father, his hands shall be hewn off.

196. If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.

197. If he breaks another man's bone, his bone shall be broken.

198. If he put out the eye of a freed man, or break the bone of a freed man, he shall pay one gold mina.

199. If he put out the eye of a man's slave, or break the bone of a man's slave, he shall pay one-half of its value.

200. If a man knocks out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out.

201. If he knocks out the teeth of a freed man, he shall pay one-third of a gold mina.

202. If any one strikes the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows with an ox-whip in public.

203. If a freeborn man strikes the body of another freeborn man or equal rank, he shall pay one gold mina.

204. If a freed man strike the body of another freed man, he shall pay ten shekels in money.

205. If the slave of a freed man strikes the body of a freed man, his ear shall be cut off.

206. If during a quarrel one man strike another and wound him, then he shall swear, "I did not injure him wittingly," and pay the physicians.

207. If the man die of his wound, he shall swear similarly, and if he (the deceased) was a freeborn man, he shall pay half a mina in money.

208. If he was a freed man, he shall pay one-third of a mina.

209. If a man strikes a freeborn woman so that she loses her unborn child, he shall pay ten shekels for her loss.

210. If the woman dies, his daughter shall be put to death.

211. If a woman of the free class loses her child by a blow, he shall pay five shekels in money.

212. If this woman dies, he shall pay half a mina.

213. If he strikes the maidservant of a man, and she loses her child, he shall pay two shekels in money.

214. If this maidservant dies, he shall pay one-third of a mina.

215. If a physician make a large incision with an operating knife and cure it, or if he open a tumor (over the eye) with an operating knife, and saves the eye, he shall receive ten shekels in money.

216. If the patient were a freed man, he receives five shekels.

217. If he were the slave of some one, his owner shall give the physician two shekels.

218. If a physician make a large incision with the operating knife, and kill him, or open a tumor with the operating knife, and cut out the eye, his hands shall be cut off.

219. If a physician make a large incision in the slave of a freed man, and kill him, he shall replace the slave with another slave.

220. If he had opened a tumor with the operating knife, and put out his eye, he shall pay half his value.

221. If a physician heals the broken bone or diseased soft part of a man, the patient shall pay the physician five shekels in money.

222. If he were a freed man he shall pay three shekels.

223. If he were a slave his owner shall pay the physician two shekels.

224. If a veterinary surgeon perform a serious operation on an ass or an ox, and cure it, the owner shall pay the surgeon one-sixth of a shekel as a fee.

225. If he perform a serious operation on an ass or ox, and kill it, he shall pay the owner one-fourth of its value.

226. If a barber, without the knowledge of his master, cut the sign of a slave on a slave not to be sold, the hands of this barber shall be cut off.

227. If any one deceive a barber, and have him mark a slave not for sale with the sign of a slave, he shall be put to death, and buried in his house. The barber shall swear: "I did not mark him wittingly," and shall be guiltless.

228. If a builder build a house for some one and complete it, he shall give him a fee of two shekels in money for each sar of surface.

229 If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house, which he built, fall in and kill its owner, then that builder shall be put to death.

230. If it kills the son of the owner the son of that builder shall be put to death.

231. If it kills a slave of the owner, then he shall pay slave for slave to the owner of the house.

232. If it ruin goods, he shall make compensation for all that has been ruined, and inasmuch as he did not construct properly this house which he built and it fell, he shall re-erect the house from his own means.

233. If a builder build a house for some one, even though he has not yet completed it, if then the walls seem toppling, the builder must make the walls solid from his own means.

234. If a shipbuilder build a boat of sixty gur for a man, he shall pay him a fee of two shekels in money.

235. If a shipbuilder build a boat for some one, and do not make it tight, if during that same year that boat is sent away and suffers injury, the shipbuilder shall take the boat apart and put it together tight at his own expense. The tight boat he shall give to the boat owner.

236. If a man rent his boat to a sailor, and the sailor is careless, and the boat is wrecked or goes aground, the sailor shall give the owner of the boat another boat as compensation.

237. If a man hire a sailor and his boat, and provide it with corn, clothing, oil and dates, and other things of the kind needed for fitting it: if the sailor is careless, the boat is wrecked, and its contents ruined, then the sailor shall compensate for the boat which was wrecked and all in it that he ruined.

238. If a sailor wreck any one's ship, but saves it, he shall pay the half of its value in money.

239. If a man hires a sailor, he shall pay him six gur of corn per year.

240. If a merchantman run against a ferryboat, and wreck it, the master of the ship that was wrecked shall seek justice before God; the master of the merchantman, which wrecked the ferryboat, must compensate the owner for the boat and all that he ruined.

241. If any one impresses an ox for forced labor, he shall pay one-third of a mina in money.

242. If any one hires oxen for a year, he shall pay four gur of corn for plow-oxen.

243. As rent of herd cattle he shall pay three gur of corn to the owner.

244. If any one hires an ox or an ass, and a lion kill it in the field, the loss is upon its owner.

245. If any one hire oxen, and kill them by bad treatment or blows, he shall compensate the owner, oxen for oxen.

246. If a man hire an ox, and he break its leg or cut the ligament of its neck, he shall compensate the owner with ox for ox.

247. If any one hire an ox, and put out its eye, he shall pay the owner one-half of its value.

248. If any one hire an ox, and break off a horn, or cut off its tail, or hurt its muzzle, he shall pay one-fourth of its value in money.

249. If any one hire an ox, and God strike it that it dies, the man who hired it shall swear by God and be considered guiltless.

250. If while an ox is passing on the street (market) some one push it, and kill it, the owner can set up no claim in the suit (against the hirer).

251. If an ox be a goring ox, and it shown that he is a gorer, and he do not bind his horns, or fasten the ox up, and the ox gore a free-born man and kill him, the owner shall pay one-half a mina in money.

252. If he kills a man's slave, he shall pay one-third of a mina.

253. If any one agree with another to tend his field, give him seed, entrust a yoke of oxen to him, and bind him to cultivate the field, if he steal the corn or plants, and take them for himself, his hands shall be hewn off.

254. If he take the seed-corn for himself, and do not use the yoke of oxen, he shall compensate him for the amount of the seed-corn.

255. If he sublet the man's yoke of oxen or steals the seed-corn, planting nothing in the field, he shall be convicted, and for each one hundred gan he shall pay sixty gur of corn.

256. If his community will not pay for him, then he shall be placed in that field with the cattle (at work).

257. If any one hires a field laborer, he shall pay him eight gur of corn per year.

258. If any one hires an ox-driver, he shall pay him six gur of corn per year.

259. If any one steals a water wheel from the field, he shall pay five shekels in money to its owner.

260. If any one steals a shade (used to draw water from the river or canal) or a plow, he shall pay three shekels in money.

261. If any one hires a herdsman for cattle or sheep, he shall pay him eight gur of corn per annum.

262. If any one, a cow or a sheep . . .

263. If he kills the cattle or sheep that were given to him, he shall compensate the owner with cattle for cattle and sheep for sheep.

264. If a herdsman, to whom cattle or sheep have been entrusted for watching over, and who has received his wages as agreed upon, and is satisfied, diminish the number of the cattle or sheep, or make the increase by birth less, he shall make good the increase or profit which was lost in the terms of settlement.

265. If a herdsman, to whose care cattle or sheep have been entrusted, be guilty of fraud and make false returns of the natural increase, or sell them for money, then shall he be convicted and pay the owner ten times the loss.

266. If the animal were killed in the stable by God (an accident), or if a lion kill it, the herdsman shall declare his innocence before God, and the owner bears the accident in the stable.

267. If the herdsman overlook something, and an accident happen in the stable, then the herdsman is at fault for the accident which he has caused in the stable, and he must compensate the owner for the cattle or sheep.

268. If any one hires an ox for threshing, the amount of the hire is twenty ka of corn.

269. If he hires an ass for threshing, the hire is twenty ka of corn.

270. If he hires a young animal for threshing, the hire is ten ka of corn.

271. If any one hires oxen, cart and driver, he shall pay one hundred and eighty ka of corn per day.

272. If any one hires a cart alone, he shall pay forty ka of corn per day.

273. If any one hires a day laborer, he shall pay him from the New Year until the fifth month (April to August, when days are long and the work hard) six gerahs in money per day; from the sixth month to the end of the year he shall give him five gerahs per day.

274. If any one hire a skilled artisan, he shall pay as wages of the . . . five gerahs, as wages of the potter five gerahs, of a tailor five gerahs, of . . . gerahs, . . . of a rope maker four gerahs, of . . .. gerahs, of a mason . . . gerahs per day.

275. If any one hires a ferryboat, he shall pay three gerahs in money per day.

276. If he hires a freight-boat, he shall pay two and one-half gerahs per day.

277. If any one hires a ship of sixty gur, he shall pay one-sixth of a shekel in money as its hire per day.

278. If any one buy a male or female slave, and before a month has elapsed the benu-disease be developed, he shall return the slave to the seller, and receive the money that he had paid.

279. If any one by a male or female slave, and a third party claim it, the seller is liable for the claim.

280. If while in a foreign country a man buy a male or female slave belonging to another of his own country; if when he return home the owner of the male or female slave recognize it: if the male or female slave be a native of the country, he shall give them back without any money.

281. If they are from another country, the buyer shall declare the amount of money paid therefore to the merchant, and keep the male or female slave.

282. If a slave says to his master: "You are not my master," if they convict him his master shall cut off his ear.

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Law Code of Hammurabi

Mr. Mike Burgher * PO Box 247 * Dallas Center, Iowa. 50063